专题二：关系副词when where why
专题四：whose as which
eg : a tall tree a book on the desk
He is the boy（who helped me）
1、 先找先行词 两个句子都谈到的人或者事物就是先行词
⑵先行词是物，不管先行词在定语从句中做主语还是宾语 ，都把先行词替换为 which/that
6、 ⑴ 若先行词在定语从句中做宾语， 引导词可以省略
⑵ 用来替换定语从句先行词的这些词叫做引导词，如who, whom, that, which, 因为它引导的是一个定语从句。
①关系代词 who whom that which whose as
②关系副词 when where why
（一）1、I don’t like the people. They smoke a lot.(在黑板上演示合成过程)
2、The man sells vegetables. You saw him just now.
3、The train was late. It was going to Yi Chang.
4、The eggs are not fresh. I bought them yesterday.
1、This is the school that you visited last year.
2、We visited a factory which/that makes toys for children.
3、The man (whom/who/that)you just talked to was a friend of mine.
4、Charles who dislikes parties is a strange character.
5. The man sells vegetables. The man is next to us .
6. I prefer dumplings. They have just been cooked.
7. The man is a teacher. You saw him yesterday.
8. The letter is from my aunt. I received it two days ago.
① The boys who are playing football are from Class One.
② Mr Liu is the person whom/who/that you talked about on the bus.
③ Football is a game which/that is liked by most boys.
④ The film which/that they went to see last night was not interesting at all.
⑤ The girl who/whom/that the teacher often praises is our moniter.
两个简单句之间必须要有并列连词，例如 and but so or,不能用it,this ,his,them等代词连接.若没有并列连词，可以把一个句子改为定语从句。
He has two brothers, both of them are doctors.
专题二：关系副词 when where why
例1、 He never forget the day. He made his first real film on the day.
He never forger the day on the day he made his first real film.
例2、He never forget the year. He made his first real film in the year.
He never forget the year in the year he made his first real film .
例3、He never forget the time. He made his first real film at the time.
总结：满足两个条件1、先行词是表示时间的名词（day, year, time）
4、I will never forget the day.
I first met you on the airport on the day.
5、I know the year. Fighting broke out in the year.
例1、 I know the name of the state. Lincoln was born in the state.
I know the name of the state in the state Lincoln was born.
例2、 This is the farm. Lincoln lived on the farm.
This is the farm on the farm Lincoln lived.
常见的介词为：at, in, into, on, above, over, under, beside, near, by
eg I know the name of the building.
The thief ran into the building.
This is the reason. For the reason he was late.
why 的先行词是reason, 在从句中做原因状语
1、Hangzhou is the place. I went to Hangzhou last summer.
2、The reason is that he passed the exam.
For the reason Peter is so happy.
3、My father was born in the year.
The Second World War broke out in the year.
4. I will never forget the school.
I worked at the school ten years ago.
5. London is a city. The streets are not planned in that city.
6. I will never forget the days. I lived in the country in the days.
7. I still remember the day. I first came to this school on the day.
专题四：whose as which
2、whose + n
the + n + of which/whom
of which/whom + the + n
eg ①The novel whose cover was broken belongs to me.
The novel of whichthe cover was broken belongs to me.
The novel the coverof which was broken belongs to me.
②The teacher whose class I took last semester retired.
The teacherI took last semester retired.
The teacherI took last semester retired.
⑴ This is Mr John.
I bought a book for Mr John’s son yesterday.
This is Mr John for whose son I bought a book yesterday.
⑵This is Mr Brown,
I came to New York by his car.
⑶The boss had heard about the accident.
Mr King worked in his department.
情况一、①I never heard such stories. He told the stories.
I never heard such stoties the stories he told.
as 就相当于以前的which或that,但是为了与such/so 构成一种固定结构，替换为as
②This is the same dictionary. I lost a dictionary yesterday.
This is the same dictionary a dictionary I lost yesterday.
总结：当先行词被such、so、the same修饰时， 关系代词常用as
so/such ……that… “如此…以至于…”that 引导一个结果状语从句
例： 用as或者 that 填空
1、He is such a good teacher students like.
2、He is such a good teacherstudents like him.
3、This stone is so heavy I can’t move it.
4、This is such a heavy stone I can’t move .
5、This is such a heavy stone I can’t move it.
6、This is such a difficult question nobody can answer it.
7、This is such a difficult question nobody can answer .
情况二、当先行词由the same 修饰时，作为引导词的关系代词可用as,也可以用that,但是二者引导的定语从句意思不同。
eg. She wore the same dress that she wore at Mary’s wedding.
She wore the same dress as her younger sister wore.
例：He is wearing the same coat that he wore yesterday.
He is wearing the same coat as Mr Green is wearing.
1、which 引导非限制性定语从句时，可用来指代前面所陈述的一件事，译为“这一点，这使得…”,相当于and this
例 He didn’t pass the examination, which was a pity.
Mr Zhang invited us to dinner, which was very kind of him.
He didn’t pass the final examination, which was a pity.
例 He can sing this song in English ,which I can not.
as everybody can see 正如人人都能看到的那样
as is announced 据宣布
as is reported 据报道
as is pointed out 正如所指出的那样
as is known to all (as we all know) 众所周知
as is expected (as we has expect) 如所预料
as has been explained 正如已解释的那样
as is said above 如前所述
例 As has been said above, grammar is not a set of dead rules.
Greenland was not a continent, as people thought.
例 ⅰ、 The result of the experiment was very good,we hadn’t expected.
ⅱ、The result of the experiment was very good,we had expected.
① As is known to all, the compass was first made in China.
② It is known to all that the compass was first made in China.
③ We all know that compass was first made in China.
④ What is known to all is that the compass was first made in China.
①The house is very small. ②We lived in the house last year.
The house the house we lived in last year is very small.
1) The house which/that we lived in last year is very small.
2) The house we lived in last year is very small.
3) The house in which we lived in last year is very small.
例 The person is Mr Black. You are talking about the person.
The person the person you are talking about is Mr Black.
1) The person who/whom/that you are talking about is Mr Black.
2) The person you are talking about is Mr Black.
3) The person about whom you are talking in Mr Black.
“介词+关系代词” ，表示在某个地点，即先行词为地点时， 介词+which—where
1. The woman is an actress. Spielberg is married to her.
2. The book was written twenty years ago. I heard about the book.
3. The people weren’t listening. The man spoke to the people.
4. The painting was painted by Vincent Van Gogh. I looked at the painting.
① 关系代词前常加介词 with, by, in, to, though等，在定语从句中做方式状语
② 关系代词前加介词at, in, on, beside, into ,above, near, by, over, under等，在定语从句中做地点状语，相当于where
③ 关系代词 which 前加 at, in, on 等，作时间状语，相当于when
① I will never forget the day I joined the army.
② I will never forget the daysI worked there.
③ I will never forget the year my son went to college.
① This is the book I spent 8 yuan.
② This is the bookI paid 8 yuan.
③ This is the book I learn a lot.
④ This is the book there are few new words.
⑤ This is the book he often talks.
⑥ This is the book I am interested.
⑦ This is the book I am tired.
例 Is this the dictionary which you are looking for?
短语动词 look for “寻找”，若把for前移，则单个look已无“寻找”之意。在此情况下动词与介词不可分开。又如look for, take care of
① The colorless gas fire can burn much better is called oxygen.
② The colorless gas doctors can make the patients out of danger is called oxygen.
③ The colorless gas we can not live is called oxygen.
例 The two things ,ofwhich they felt proud ,were Jim’s gold watch and Jelly’s hair.
例 The journey around the world took the old sailor nine
months, the sailing time was 226 days.
例 ① In the office I never seems to have time until after 5：30 pm.,
time many people have gone home.
② He may be late,case we ought to wait for him.
③ The house windows there is light is mine.
④ This is Mr. Brown,car I came to New York.
⑤ He got to the station at five yesterday
afternoon,time the trains to Beijing had all left.
⑥ Telephone me at four o’clock,time I should have the information.
3、数词+of +which/whom = of +which/whom+数词
① The factory produces half a million pairs of shoes every,80%ofwhich are sold abroad.
① I have 20 books, 15of which are about English.
② I met some foreigners yesterday, twoofwhom are from the US.
③ In our factory, there are 2000 workers, twothirdsofwhom are women.
4.不定代词 of which/whom = of which/whom 不定代词
例 1）There are different forms of energy, mostofwhich come from the sun.
2）He has two sons, neitherofwhom is living with him.
5 、the 名词 of which/whom = of which/whom the 名词
例 1）The house, the gate of which faces south, belongs to the Smiths.
2) Mr. Smiths, the house of whom was robbed , reported it to the police.
3) It was the island the name of which I have forgotten.
4) In 1990 he caught a serious illness the effects of which he still suffers from.
6、形容词比较级、最高级 +of + which/whom
例 There are two buildings ,the larger of which stands nearly a hundred feet high.
in front of 、 in the front of 、 in the middle of 、by means of、because of 、 instead of 、in spite of
1) Rose stood there crying, in front of whom was a snake.
1) They arrived at a farmhouse, in front of which sat a small boy.
2) Tom had a bad cold , because of which he didn’t go to school.
3) You had better not bring children to see the animals of which they are afraid.
一、1.The boy was staying in the room whose window he could climb down.
2. I know a lady husband is a Nobel Prize winner.
I know a lady the husband is a Nobel Prize winner.
3. Do you know the drivercaused the traffic accident a man was killed?
4. The five Yuan he bought the book was given by his friend.
5. The old man always wears his glasses he can’t see anything.
6. At last they came to the river a new bridge was being built.
7. The key she was opening the door broke.
二、1. I don’t know the foreigner my teacher shook hands with.
I don’t know the foreigner my teacher shook hands.
2. This is the pen Marx wrote the book “The Civil War in France”.
3. He stood by the window, he could see what was happening outside.
4. I don’t know the man with who my brother is talking. (改错)
5. He is the very person for whom I am looking. (改错)
6. He built a telescope he could study the sky.
7. The reason he did that is quite obvious.
8. I know of a pool we can swim.
9. Can you tell me the reason she didn’t attend the meeting?
Can you tell me the reason she didn’t attend the meeting?
10. the boys, the tallest ofcould not reach the shelf, went to look for something to stand on.
11. This is the room I was born.
This is the river in front of there is a river.
12. I will never forget the day I joined the army.
例 Some of the boys I invited them didn’t come.
例 Those who has finished may leave the classroom now.
例 Children eat a lot of sugar often get bad teeth.
5. 在先行词reason 后，错用关系副词why
例 The reason he was late is that his mother was ill.
The reason he gave is that his mother was ill.
引导词不一定都由中心词的意义来决定，而是由中心词在定语从句中做什么成分来确定的。换句话说，先行词是表示时间的词，引导词不一定都用when, 先行词是表示地点的词，引导词不一定都用where. 先行词是reason,引导词不一定用why， 应当仔细分析先行词在定语从句中充当什么成分。
一、 ⑴如果定语从句中充当主语或者宾语或者表语，要用关系代词which或that, who, whom。
①先行词是表示时间的名词，如days, time, morning, mouth, year, moment等，则引导词为when
②先行词是表示地点的名词，如house, room, factory, place等，则引导词为where
① spend, remember, forget ，后接时间
如：spend summer holiday ,spend three days ,
spend the night
②build, visit , 之后接地点，
1、I still remember the days we spent in the countryside 20 years ago.
2、York,I visited last year, is a nice old city.
3、Have you asked her for the reason he explain for her absence?
4 I know a place we can have a place.
I know a place is famous for its beautiful natural scenery.
5. I will never forget the days we spent our holidays together.
I will never forget the days we spent together.
6. This is the place our class will visit next week.
This is the place many people want to visit.
This is the place he works.
7. I still remember the days we studied together.
Do you still remember the days we spent together?
8. He lived in the house stood lonely at the foot of the hill.
He lived in the house he had built with his own hands.
9. I′ll never forget the summer holidays I spent on the seashore.
I’ll never forget the summer holidays I took an odd job at the garage.
10. This is the factory we visited yesterday.
This is the factory he works.
This is the factory he works.
11. The days she had to leave arrived at last.
12. We shall visit the village his father teachers there.
13. The days we spent together can not be easily forgotten.
例 They are hollow, which makes them very light.
3 含有“one of + 复数名词+ 定语从句”结构的句子，有两种情况
②one 前有the, the only, the first, the last, the right等限定词修饰，定语的谓语动词用单数。
1. He is one of the boys who (know) English.
2. He is the one of the boys who (know) English.
3. I like the students who (follow) the teacher’s instructions.
4. All that (be) needed is money.
5. All who (want) to go can start now.
6. He is one of the boys who (like) English.
7. He is the one of the boys who (like) English.
8. He is the only one of the boys who (like) English.
9. Those who (have) finished your homework may leave the classroom now.
10. The days we spent in Beijing (be) not easy to forget.
11. I’d like to see the one of the books which (be) sent here yesterday.
12. The students who (be) good at playing football are from Class 2.
13. The news which (be) about his death is not true,
14. The girls who are talking with Mr. Green (be) making a lot of noise.
15. Is he the man who (sell) the eggs?
16. I, who (be) a Chinese, will do my best for our country.
17. Give advice to a friend who (want) to improve his English.
口诀：两代限行特有序， 还有这那和表语， 只用that要牢记
He spoke of the factories and workers that he had visited./
2、代：先行词为all, little, much, few, everything, anything, none等代词，或被all, every, any, much, little, few，no 修饰时；
I will tell you all that she told me at the palace ball. (宫廷舞会)
You can take any room that you like.
3、限：先行词被the very, the only, the same, the right, the last修饰限定时；
You are the only person that I admired a lot./
This is the best TV play that I’ve ever watched.
Who is the man that is talking to John?
Which is the book that is well worth reading?
When speaking of the cities of the USA, the first that comes to my mind is New York. (本身)
7、主句以there be, here be开头的句子：
There is a house in the village that is very old.
Here is the book that you ordered.
China is not the one that she is used to be.
Tom is not the man that he used to be.
例. It was at five o’clock Tom came to see my yesterday afternoon.
A. where B. that C. before D. after
It was in the bookstore I met your brother the other day.
A． that B. which C. in which D. in that