8 tips for healthy eating

8 tips for healthy eating
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2021年04月02日15:45:52 0 472

8 tips for healthy eating

-Eat well

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Tips for healthy eating

These 8 practical tips cover the basics of healthy eating and can help you make healthier choices.

The key to a healthy diet is to eat the right amount of calories for how active you are so you balance the energy you consume with the energy you use.

If you eat or drink more than your body needs, you'll put on weight because the energy you do not use is stored as fat. If you eat and drink too little, you'll lose weight.

You should also eat a wide range of foods to make sure you're getting a balanced diet and your body is receiving all the nutrients it needs.

It's recommended that men have around 2,500 calories a day (10,500 kilojoules). Women should have around 2,000 calories a day (8,400 kilojoules).

Most adults in the UK are eating more calories than they need and should eat fewer calories.

1. Base your meals on higher fibre starchy carbohydrates

Starchy carbohydrates should make up just over a third of the food you eat. They include potatoes, bread, rice, pasta and cereals.

Choose higher fibre or wholegrain varieties, such as wholewheat pasta, brown rice or potatoes with their skins on.

They contain more fibre than white or refined starchy carbohydrates and can help you feel full for longer.

Try to include at least 1 starchy food with each main meal. Some people think starchy foods are fattening, but gram for gram the carbohydrate they contain provides fewer than half the calories of fat.

Keep an eye on the fats you add when you're cooking or serving these types of foods because that's what increases the calorie content – for example, oil on chips, butter on bread and creamy sauces on pasta.

2. Eat lots of fruit and veg

It's recommended that you eat at least 5 portions of a variety of fruit and veg every day. They can be fresh, frozen, canned, dried or juiced.

Getting your 5 A Day is easier than it sounds. Why not chop a banana over your breakfast cereal, or swap your usual mid-morning snack for a piece of fresh fruit?

A portion of fresh, canned or frozen fruit and vegetables is 80g. A portion of dried fruit (which should be kept to mealtimes) is 30g.

A 150ml glass of fruit juice, vegetable juice or smoothie also counts as 1 portion, but limit the amount you have to no more than 1 glass a day as these drinks are sugary and can damage your teeth.

3. Eat more fish, including a portion of oily fish

Fish is a good source of protein and contains many vitamins and minerals.

Aim to eat at least 2 portions of fish a week, including at least 1 portion of oily fish.

Oily fish are high in omega-3 fats, which may help prevent heart disease. 

Oily fish include:

salmon

trout

herring

sardines

pilchards

mackerel

Non-oily fish include:

haddock

plaice

coley

cod

tuna

skate

hake

You can choose from fresh, frozen and canned, but remember that canned and smoked fish can be high in salt.

Most people should be eating more fish, but there are recommended limits for some types of fish.

Find out more about fish and shellfish

4. Cut down on saturated fat and sugar

Saturated fat

You need some fat in your diet, but it's important to pay attention to the amount and type of fat you're eating.

There are 2 main types of fat: saturated and unsaturated. Too much saturated fat can increase the amount of cholesterol in the blood, which increases your risk of developing heart disease.

On average, men should have no more than 30g of saturated fat a day. On average, women should have no more than 20g of saturated fat a day.

Children under the age of 11 should have less saturated fat than adults, but a low-fat diet is not suitable for children under 5.

Saturated fat is found in many foods, such as:

fatty cuts of meat

sausages

butter

hard cheese

cream

cakes

biscuits

lard

pies

Try to cut down on your saturated fat intake and choose foods that contain unsaturated fats instead, such as vegetable oils and spreads, oily fish and avocados.

For a healthier choice, use a small amount of vegetable or olive oil, or reduced-fat spread instead of butter, lard or ghee.

When you're having meat, choose lean cuts and cut off any visible fat.

All types of fat are high in energy, so they should only be eaten in small amounts.

Sugar

Regularly consuming foods and drinks high in sugar increases your risk of obesity and tooth decay.

Sugary foods and drinks are often high in energy (measured in kilojoules or calories), and if consumed too often can contribute to weight gain. They can also cause tooth decay, especially if eaten between meals.

Free sugars are any sugars added to foods or drinks, or found naturally in honey, syrups and unsweetened fruit juices and smoothies.

This is the type of sugar you should be cutting down on, rather than the sugar found in fruit and milk.

Many packaged foods and drinks contain surprisingly high amounts of free sugars.

Free sugars are found in many foods, such as:

sugary fizzy drinks

sugary breakfast cereals

cakes

biscuits

pastries and puddings

sweets and chocolate

alcoholic drinks

Food labels can help. Use them to check how much sugar foods contain.

More than 22.5g of total sugars per 100g means the food is high in sugar, while 5g of total sugars or less per 100g means the food is low in sugar.

Get tips on cutting down on sugar in your diet

5. Eat less salt: no more than 6g a day for adults

Eating too much salt can raise your blood pressure. People with high blood pressure are more likely to develop heart disease or have a stroke.

Even if you do not add salt to your food, you may still be eating too much.

About three-quarters of the salt you eat is already in the food when you buy it, such as breakfast cereals, soups, breads and sauces.

Use food labels to help you cut down. More than 1.5g of salt per 100g means the food is high in salt.

Adults and children aged 11 and over should eat no more than 6g of salt (about a teaspoonful) a day. Younger children should have even less.

Get tips on cutting down on salt in your diet

6. Get active and be a healthy weight

As well as eating healthily, regular exercise may help reduce your risk of getting serious health conditions. It's also important for your overall health and wellbeing.

Read more about the benefits of exercise and physical activity guidelines for adults.

Being overweight or obese can lead to health conditions, such as type 2 diabetes, certain cancers, heart disease and stroke. Being underweight could also affect your health.

Most adults need to lose weight by eating fewer calories.

If you're trying to lose weight, aim to eat less and be more active. Eating a healthy, balanced diet can help you maintain a healthy weight.

Check whether you're a healthy weight by using the BMI healthy weight calculator.

Start the NHS weight loss plan, a 12-week weight loss guide that combines advice on healthier eating and physical activity.

If you're underweight, see underweight adults. If you're worried about your weight, ask your GP or a dietitian for advice.

7. Do not get thirsty

You need to drink plenty of fluids to stop you getting dehydrated. The government recommends drinking 6 to 8 glasses every day. This is in addition to the fluid you get from the food you eat. 

All non-alcoholic drinks count, but water, lower fat milk and lower sugar drinks, including tea and coffee, are healthier choices. 

Try to avoid sugary soft and fizzy drinks, as they're high in calories. They're also bad for your teeth. 

Even unsweetened fruit juice and smoothies are high in free sugar.

Your combined total of drinks from fruit juice, vegetable juice and smoothies should not be more than 150ml a day, which is a small glass.

Remember to drink more fluids during hot weather or while exercising.

8. Do not skip breakfast

Some people skip breakfast because they think it'll help them lose weight.

But a healthy breakfast high in fibre and low in fat, sugar and salt can form part of a balanced diet, and can help you get the nutrients you need for good health.

A wholegrain lower sugar cereal with semi-skimmed milk and fruit sliced over the top is a tasty and healthier breakfast.

健康饮食的8个秘诀

这8条实用技巧涵盖了健康饮食的基础知识,可以帮助您做出更健康的选择。

健康饮食的关键是,要根据自己的活跃程度来摄入适量的卡路里,以使所消耗的能量与所消耗的能量保持平衡。

如果您进食或喝水超出身体所需,则会增加体重,因为不使用的能量会以脂肪的形式存储。如果少吃喝多,就会减肥。

您还应该吃各种各样的食物,以确保饮食均衡,并且身体正在吸收所需的所有营养。

建议男人每天摄取约2500卡路里(10,500千焦耳)的热量。女性每天应摄取约2000卡路里(8400千焦耳)。

英国的大多数成年人所摄入的卡路里多于其所需的卡路里,应少食用卡路里。

1.膳食以高纤维淀粉碳水化合物为基础

淀粉类碳水化合物应占您所吃食物的三分之一以上。它们包括土豆,面包,米饭,面食和谷类食品。

选择纤维含量较高或全麦的品种,例如全麦面食,糙米或土豆皮。

与白色或精制淀粉状碳水化合物相比,它们含有更多的纤维,可以帮助您更长久地保持饱腹感。

尝试在每顿主餐中至少包含1种含淀粉食物。有人认为含淀粉的食物正在发胖,但是每克含糖的碳水化合物所提供的卡路里不到脂肪的一半。

在烹饪或提供这些类型的食物时,请注意添加的脂肪,因为这会增加卡路里的含量,例如,碎屑上的油,面包上的黄油和面食上的奶油沙司。

2.多吃水果和蔬菜

建议您每天至少吃5份各种水果和蔬菜。它们可以是新鲜的,冷冻的,罐头的,干燥的或榨汁的。

让您的5天游比听起来容易。为什么不将香蕉切成薄片作为早餐麦片,或者不将早晨的平时零食换成一块新鲜水果?

新鲜,罐装或冷冻的水果和蔬菜的一部分为80克。一部分干果(应保留进餐时间)为30克。

一杯150毫升的果汁,蔬菜汁或冰沙也算为一份,但由于这些饮料含糖,会损害牙齿,因此每天的摄入量不得超过1杯。

3.多吃鱼,包括一部分油性鱼

鱼是蛋白质的良好来源,并且含有多种维生素和矿物质。

旨在每周至少吃2份鱼,包括至少1份油性鱼。

油性鱼富含omega-3脂肪,可能有助于预防心脏病。 

油性鱼包括:

三文鱼

鳟鱼

鲱鱼

沙丁鱼

沙丁鱼

鲭鱼

非油性鱼包括:

黑线鳕

pla

科利

鳕鱼

金枪鱼

滑冰

无须鳕

您可以从新鲜,冷冻和罐头中选择,但请记住,罐头和熏制鱼的盐含量较高。

大多数人应该多吃鱼,但是建议对某些类型的鱼有限制。

了解有关鱼类和贝类的更多信息

4.减少饱和脂肪和糖

饱和脂肪

您的饮食中需要一些脂肪,但重要的是要注意所吃脂肪的数量和类型。

脂肪有2种主要类型:饱和脂肪和不饱和脂肪。过多的饱和脂肪会增加血液中的胆固醇含量,从而增加患心脏病的风险。

平均而言,男人每天应摄入的饱和脂肪不超过30克。平均而言,女性每天应摄入不超过20克的饱和脂肪。

11岁以下的儿童应比成人少饱和脂肪,但低脂饮食不适合5岁以下的儿童。

在许多食物中都发现了饱和脂肪,例如:

肉的脂肪切块

香肠

黄油

硬奶酪

奶油

蛋糕

饼干

猪油

尝试减少饱和脂肪的摄入,并选择含有不饱和脂肪的食物,例如植物油和涂抹酱,油性鱼和鳄梨。

为了获得更健康的选择,请使用少量的植物油或橄榄油或低脂涂抹酱代替黄油,猪油或酥油。

吃肉时,选择瘦肉并切掉任何可见的脂肪。

所有类型的脂肪都富含能量,因此只能少量食用。

经常食用含糖 量高的食物和饮料会增加肥胖和蛀牙的风险。

含糖食品和饮料通常含大量能量(以千焦耳或卡路里为单位),如果食用过多,则会导致体重增加。它们也会引起蛀牙,尤其是在两餐之间进食的时候。

游离糖是添加到食品或饮料中的任何糖,或者是天然存在于蜂蜜,糖浆和不加糖的果汁和冰沙中的糖。

这是您应该减少的糖类型,而不是水果和牛奶中的糖。

许多包装食品和饮料中含有大量的游离糖。

在许多食物中都发现有游离糖,例如:

含糖的碳酸饮料

含糖早餐谷物

蛋糕

饼干

糕点和布丁

糖果和巧克力

有酒精的饮品

食品标签可以提供帮助。用它们检查含糖食品的含量。

每100克中总糖超过22.5克就意味着食物中糖含量高,而每100克中有5克总糖或更少糖意味着食物中糖含量低。

获取有关减少饮食中糖分的提示

5.少吃盐:成人每天不超过6克

食盐过多会导致血压升高。与人高血压更容易患心脏疾病或有中风。

即使您没有在食物中加盐,您仍然可能吃得过多。

您购买的食物中已经有大约四分之三的盐已经存在于食物中,例如早餐谷物,汤,面包和调味料。

使用食品标签来帮助您减少体重。每100克含1.5克以上的盐意味着食物中的盐含量很高。

11岁及以上的成人和儿童每天应吃不超过6克盐(约一茶匙)。年幼的孩子应该少吃些。

获取减少饮食中盐分的技巧

6.活跃起来并保持健康的体重

除了健康饮食外,经常运动可能有助于降低患上严重健康状况的风险。这对于您的整体健康和福祉也很重要。

阅读更多有关锻炼和体育锻炼对成年人的益处的信息。

超重或肥胖会导致健康状况,例如2型糖尿病,某些癌症,心脏病和中风。体重过轻也会影响您的健康。

大多数成年人需要通过减少卡路里摄入来减肥。

如果您想减肥,请少吃一点,多运动。饮食健康,均衡饮食可以帮助您保持健康的体重。

使用BMI健康体重计算器检查您的体重是否健康。

启动NHS减肥计划,这是一个为期12周的减肥指南,其中包含有关健康饮食和体育锻炼的建议。

如果您体重不足,请咨询体重不足的成年人。如果您担心自己的体重,请向您的家庭医生或营养师咨询。

7.不要口渴

您需要喝大量的液体以阻止您脱水。政府建议每天喝6到8杯。这是除了从吃的食物中获得的水分之外。 

所有非酒精饮料都可以,但是水,低脂牛奶和低糖饮料(包括茶和咖啡)是更健康的选择。 

尽量避免含糖的软饮料和碳酸饮料,因为它们热量很高。它们对牙齿也有害。 

甚至不加糖的果汁和冰沙中的游离糖含量也很高。

果汁,蔬菜汁和冰沙中的饮料合计每天不应超过150毫升,这是一个小玻璃杯。

切记在炎热的天气或运动时多喝水。

8.不要跳过早餐

有些人不吃早餐,因为他们认为这会帮助他们减肥。

但是,富含纤维,脂肪,糖和盐含量低的健康早餐可以构成均衡饮食的一部分,并可以帮助您获得良好健康所需的营养。

一个全麦低糖谷类与半脱脂牛奶和水果切片夸张的是一个美味和健康的早餐。

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