AT Bridging 教师培训手册3

AT Bridging 教师培训手册3
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2021年04月04日22:16:51 0 443

AT Bridging Speaking

Unit 1  

Time: 120 minutes

Source: AT Bridging Speaking Coursebook

Main focus: Speaking

Lesson aim: 

- To better enable students to know how to ask questions about others;

- To better enable students to know how to describe themselves and their interests

- To better enable students to know how to use contractions to speak naturally

Teaching Points (lesson procedure)

Warm-Up

• Set the context of a student welcoming fair;

• Have Ss mingle and get to know their classmates;

Teacher’s Note: 

- Remember to demo first

- Remember to build a positive rapport (by smiling and being friendly) in order to encourage students to mingle.

Vocabulary

• Have Ss guess the meanings and complete the matching task;

• Clarify MPFA of the words in this stage;

Teacher’s Note: 

- Tell Ss they are going to listen to a conversation where two students talk about themselves and their interests. But first they need to learn some words.

- Drill the pronunciation chorally and individually;

Before You Speak

• Have Ss listen and answer the question in Ex.I  (listen for gist and understand the main idea);

• Have Ss listen again and complete the table in Ex.II;

Teacher’s Note: 

- In Ex.II, encourage students to pair check their answers. Then, you can take it up to the whole class.

- Feel free to play the recording more than once if necessary

• Set Ex.III and guide Ss to introduce Amy and Joe to their partners; remind students that they can use the table in Ex.II

Speaking Skills-Introducing Yourself 

• Set Ex.I and then let students check the answer in pairs;

Teacher’s Note: 

- Feel free to play the recording more than once if necessary

- If students really have troubles with the conversation, then have them read the script and write down the sentences/structures.

• Set Ex.II and then nominate one or two students to share information about their partners;

• Set the follow-up tasks and take up answers with the whole class

Teacher’s Note: 

- Ask Ss to discuss in pairs and decide which of the topics are good to talk about when you are just getting to know someone and which ones are not.

- Use ICQs to remind them that they need to provide reasons to explain their decisions.

- Make sure you give Ss enough time to discuss.

Describing Yourself And Your Interest & TOEFL Tips

• Guide Ss to notice the reason why they need to know how to describe themselves and their interests (keep it simple and clear);

• Make it more interactive by asking questions or eliciting ideas from Ss.

Pronunciation-Using Contractions

• Clarify the importance of using contractions based on the clarification paragraph;

• Show Ss some examples and elicit what contractions are from Ss;

• Use CCQs to reinforce that contractions are often used in speaking or in informal writing. Ss should not use contractions in formal written English.

• Set Ex.I and ask Ss to listen to the conversation and underline the phrases they hear.

• Set Ex.II and ask Ss to read the sentence with sentence stress;

Teacher’s Note:

- Give Ss demo before asking them to practice;

- Correct Ss while monitoring if necessary;

• Set Ex.III and ask Ss to underline the words in the conversation that should be stressed and then check answers in pairs;

Teacher’s Note:

- You need to prepare the HANDOUTS. Give the script of Conversation A to half of the class. Then give the script of Conversation B to the other half.

- Use ICQs to reinforce that they should not show the script/handout to their partners.

- Correct Ss while monitoring if necessary;

• Set Ex.IV and correct Ss while monitoring if necessary;

TOEFL Tips

• Clarify the importance of using contractions in TOEFL. Keep it simple and clear.

Time to Speak

• Set the context.

• Set Ex.I & II and guide Ss to work in groups of 3-4;

• Set Ex.III as a “Find Someone Who” task to get to know other students better and find out who has something in common with them.

Teacher’s Note:

- T tells Ss to stand up and walk around the class, and talk to different classmates about each other and their interests. Ss will also find out who has something in common with them as a “purpose” for the activity/Ss 

• Give both content and language feedback on their work afterwards.

TOEFL Bridge 

• Set Ex.I and ask Ss to complete the interview. Make sure they take notes while interviewing.

• Set Ex.II and ask Ss to present in pairs and groups.

Teacher’s Note:

- Let students know some TOEFL questions ask about their favourite and least favourite subjects at school. So they can try to use the language they’ve learnt in this module and produce a complete response.

- Give Ss time to prepare beforehand. 

- Monitor and assist with ideas or/and language. 

- Remind students of using the ideas from the interview. 

- Give feedback afterwards.

Unit 2  

Time: 120 minutes

Source: AT Bridging Speaking Coursebook

Main focus: Speaking

Lesson aim: 

- To better enable students to know how to give opinions about joining different student clubs;

- To better enable students to know how to emphasize new or important information when speaking;

Teaching Points (lesson procedure)

Warm-Up

• Set the context of student clubs;

• Have Ss look at pictures and discuss the questions;

Vocabulary

• Have Ss guess the meanings and complete the crossword puzzle;

• Clarify MPFA of the words in this stage;

Teacher’s Note: 

- Tell Ss they are going to listen to a conversation about student clubs, but first they need to learn some words.

- Drill the pronunciation chorally and individually;

Before You Speak

• Have Ss listen and answer the question in Ex.I  (listen for gist and understand the main idea);

• Have Ss listen again and complete the table in Ex.II;

• Set Ex.III and guide Ss to brainstorm the benefits of participating in student clubs;

Speaking Skills-Introducing Opinions 

• Set Ex.I and then check the answer as a whole class;

• Set Ex.II and then ask Ss to check answers in pairs;

• Set Ex.III as an individual work and elicit some other expressions;

Teacher’s Note: 

- Board all the added expressions and show them to the whole class

• Set Ex. IV

Teacher’s Note: 

- Show the speaking question. Give Ss time to prepare for the answer. 

- Monitor and assist with ideas or/and language (vocabulary and sentence structures). Make sure Ss are writing key words of the answer but not full sentences. 

- Have Ss present the answer in pairs twice (Regroup after the first time). Give both content and language feedback on their work afterwards.

Give Opinions & TOEFL Tips

• Guide Ss to notice the importance of giving opinions (keep it simple and clear)

• Make it more interactive by asking questions or eliciting ideas from Ss;

Pronunciation-Sentence Stress

• Clarify the importance of sentence stress based on the clarification paragraph;

• Show Ss some examples and elicit the stressed words from Ss;

• Set Ex.I and ask Ss to listen to the conversation and underline the stressed words

• Set Ex.II and ask Ss to read the sentence with sentence stress; 

Teacher’s Note:

- Give Ss demo before asking them to practice;

- Correct Ss while monitoring if necessary;

• Set Ex.III and ask Ss to underline the words in the conversation that should be stressed and then check answers in pairs;

• Set Ex.IV and play the audio, ask Ss to check answers in pairs; T gives answers afterwards.

- Set Ex.V and correct Ss while monitoring if necessary;

TOEFL Tips

• Clarify the importance of sentence stress in TOEFL. Keep it simple and clear.

Time to Speak

• Set the context.

• Set Ex.I & II and guide Ss to work in pairs;

• Set Ex.III as a “Find Someone Who” task to find other students who want to join the same student club.

Teacher’s Note:

- T tells Ss to stand up and walk around the class, and talk to different classmates about which club they will join and why. Ss will also find out who is joining the same club as a “purpose” for the activity/Ss 

• Give both content and language feedback on their work afterwards.

TOEFL Bridge

• Set Ex.I and ask Ss to complete the interview. Make sure they take notes while interviewing.

• Set Ex.II and ask Ss to present in pairs and groups.

Teacher’s Note:

- Give Ss time to prepare beforehand. 

- Monitor and assist with ideas or/and language. 

- Remind students of using the ideas from the interview. 

- Give feedback afterwards.

Unit 3

Time: 120min

Source: AT Bridging Speaking Coursebook

Main Aim:

- To practice students’ speaking skills of giving reasons and consequences under the context of art, film and music.

- To provide students with knowledge of word stress.

Teaching Points (lesson procedure)

Warm-up:

• Set up context of art events;

• Set Ex.II ,get students look at the pictures and engaged in discussion;

Pre-teach vocabulary:

- Elicit meaning before telling;

- Clarify MPFA of the words in this stage;

- Use CCQs to check meaning;

Teacher’s Note: 

- Remember to model and drill (individual, choral, etc.);

- Set up instructions for gap-filling exercises;

Before You Speak:

• Set up the reading task in Ex.I and use comprehension questions to check understanding before the listening task.

• Set Ex.II and use ICQs to make sure students understand that they only need to listen for gist information.

• Set Ex. III as an comprehensive listening task;

Teacher’s Note: 

- When eliciting answers from students, try further challenging them by asking why/how if they get the answers right, to make sure that they are not simply guessing. 

Speaking Skills – Giving Reasons & Consequences

• Set Ex.I and then check the answer as a whole class;

• Set Ex.II and then ask Ss to check answers in pairs;

• Set Ex.III as an individual work and check the answer as a whole class;

• Set Ex. IV as a pair work and then ask Ss to check answers in pairs;

• Set Ex. V as an individual work first and then ask Ss to work in pairs;

Teacher’s Note: 

- Show the speaking question. Give Ss time to prepare for the answer. 

- Monitor and assist with ideas or/and language (vocabulary and sentence structures). Make sure Ss are writing key words of the answer but not full sentences. 

- Have Ss present the answer in pairs twice (Regroup after the first time). Give both content and language feedback on their work afterwards.

Give Reasons & Consequences & TOEFL Tips

• Guide Ss to notice the importance of giving reasons & consequences (keep it simple and clear)

• Make it more interactive by asking questions or eliciting ideas from Ss;

Pronunciation-Word Stress

• Clarify the importance of word stress based on the clarification paragraph;

• Show Ss some examples and elicit the stressed words from Ss;

• Set Ex.I and ask Ss to check in pairs;

Teacher’s Note:

- T explains the concept of “syllable” to Ss first, using phonetic charts & symbols;

• Set Ex.II and ask Ss to mark the words stress with the stress symbol;

Teacher’s Note:

- Give Ss demo before asking them to practice;

- Correct note down the word stress that Ss get wrong while monitoring if necessary;

• Set Ex.III and ask Ss to check their answers when listening to the audio and then check answers in pairs;

Teacher’s Note:

- Ask Ss to practice pronouncing those words; 

- T drills S individually if necessary;

- Set Ex.IV and correct Ss while monitoring if necessary;

- Set Ex.V and have Ss discuss in pairs quickly;

TOEFL Tips

• Clarify the importance of word stress in TOEFL;

• Keep it simple and clear;

Time To Speak

• Set the context and ask Ss to look at the poster first;

Teacher’s Note:

- T can role play a Theater Department interviewer at the end of the activity for checking/authenticity purposes; 

• Set Ex.I and guide Ss to work in pairs and discuss about the possible results the drama festival can bring to the university community, both positive and negative results;

• Set Ex.II and guide Ss to note down some reasons for their decision;

• Set Ex.III as a mingle activity and ask Ss to find out other students who want to sign up for the event;

• Set Ex.IV

Teacher’s Note:

- T will be staff member from the Theater Department and ask a few Ss in class if they’re attending the festival and for their opinions. Ss will share answers with class;

- Give both content and language feedback on their work afterwards;

TOEFL Bridge 

• Set Ex.I and ask Ss to complete the task. Make sure they take notes while preparing.

• Set Ex.II and ask Ss to present in pairs and groups.

Teacher’s Note:

- Give Ss time to prepare beforehand. 

- Monitor and assist with ideas or/and language. 

- Remind students of using the ideas from the notes. 

- Give feedback afterwards.

Unit 4  

Time: 120 minutes

Source: AT Bridging Speaking Coursebook

Main focus: Speaking

Lesson aim: 

- To better enable students to know how to support opinions by giving examples and facts

- To better enable students to know how to use sentence stress to emphasize certain sentence meanings.

Teaching Points (lesson procedure)

Warm-Up

• Set the context of shopping;

• Have Ss look at pictures and discuss the questions;

Teacher’s Note: 

- Use ICQs to remind students that they need to provide reasons.

- May need to clarify the meaning of Pros and Cons before the activity.

- Demo the activity yourself.

Vocabulary

• Have Ss guess the meanings and fill the gaps;

• Clarify MPFA of the words in this stage;

Teacher’s Note: 

- Tell Ss they are going to listen to a lecture from a business class. But first they need to learn some words.

- Drill the pronunciation chorally and individually;

Before You Speak

• Have Ss listen and answer the question in Ex.I  (listen for gist and understand the main idea);

Teacher’s Note: 

- You may need to clarify that why D is not correct. Although the speakers mention some advantages of shopping in traditional stores, those points do not serve as the cons of shopping online. Therefore, the correct choice is C.

• Have Ss listen again and complete the table in Ex.II;

Teacher’s Note: 

- In Ex.II, encourage students to pair check their answers. Then, you can take it up to the whole class.

- Feel free to play the recording more than once if necessary

- Remember to ask for more evidence in order to make sure students truly understand the details instead of guessing whether the statement is true or false.

Speaking Skills-Giving Examples 

• Set Ex.I and then check the answer as a whole class;

• Set Ex.II and then ask Ss to check answers in pairs;

• Set Ex.III as an individual work and elicit some other expressions;

Teacher’s Note: 

- Board all the added expressions and show them to the whole class

• Set Ex. IV

Teacher’s Note: 

- Show the speaking question. Give Ss time to prepare for the answer. 

- Monitor and assist with ideas or/and language (vocabulary and sentence structures). Make sure Ss are writing key words of the answer but not full sentences. 

- Have Ss present the answer in pairs twice (Regroup after the first time). Give both content and language feedback on their work afterwards.

Give Examples & TOEFL Tips

• Guide Ss to notice the importance of giving examples (keep it simple and clear)

• Make it more interactive by asking questions or eliciting ideas from Ss;

Pronunciation-Sentence Stress

• Ask students to recall what they’ve learnt in Unit 2. Elicit why sentence stress is important. If students need help, tell them to refer to the clarification paragraph.

• Show Ss some examples (in the table) and elicit the stressed words from Ss;

• Set Ex.I and ask Ss to listen to the sentences and match them with the correct meaning.

• Set Ex.II and ask Ss to read the sentence and use the sentence stress to express the corresponding meanings;

Teacher’s Note:

- Give Ss demo before asking them to practice;

- Correct Ss while monitoring if necessary;

- As an extension, you can have Ss choose how’d they’d like to use sentence stress in each sentence. Then have their partner(s) guess the implied meaning.

TOEFL Tips

• Clarify the importance of sentence stress in TOEFL. Keep it simple and clear.

Time to Speak

• Set the context.

• Set Ex.I & II and guide Ss to work in pairs;

• Set Ex.III as a “Debate” task to encourage students speaking more.

Teacher’s Note:

- 1. Put Ss into 2 groups according to their opinions towards the statement.

- 2. Then give each group enough time for them to discuss possible reasons to support their opinion. In addition, they have to come up with examples and facts to develop their reasons. Use ICQs to remind students to use their notes in Ex.II and the language for providing examples and facts to complete this task. Also remind them to make their reasons and examples as CONVINCING as possible in order to win the debate.

- 3. Put Ss into two lines. Tell them the rules—the first person from Group A starts. Then the first person in Group B continues. Next, the second person in Group A talks. Once finished, the second person in Group B speaks… 

- 4. Give Ss enough “thinking time”. Then, regroup them according to their new opinions. And the team that gains the more new members “wins” the debate.

• Give both content and language feedback on their work afterwards

TOEFL Bridge 

• Set Ex.I and ask Ss to complete the interview. Make sure they take notes while interviewing.

• Set Ex.II and ask Ss to present in pairs and groups.

Teacher’s Note:

- Let students know some TOEFL questions ask about technology, such as online classes, electronic books, and so on. So they can try to use the language they’ve learnt in this module and produce a complete response.

- Give Ss time to prepare beforehand. 

- Monitor and assist with ideas or/and language. 

- Remind students of using the ideas from the interview. 

- Give feedback afterwards.

AT Bridging writing

Unit 1 

Time: 120 minutes

Source: AT Bridging Writing Coursebook

Main focus: Writing

Lesson aim:

- To better enable Students to know how to write a topic sentence;

- To better enable Students to know how to recognize parts of a paragraph;

- To better enable Students to know how to make a clear outline for Ss writing;

Teaching Points (lesson procedure)

Warm-Up

Ÿ Set Ex. I, have Ss look at pictures and discuss the questions;

Ÿ Set Ex. II and Ss discuss and share their opinion in the class;

Teacher’s note: 

- Assist with ideas or/and language;

Vocabulary 

Ÿ Have Ss guess the meanings of the words;

Ÿ Set Ex. II and clarify MFPA;

Teacher’s note 

- Give Ss demo before asking Ss to write a definition; 

- Or teacher and students write one definition together; 

- Procedures for teachers to check and to teach vocabulary – MFPA;  to check comprehension with CCQs;

Before You Write 

Ÿ Set Ex. I, have Ss read and discuss the question in pairs;

Teacher’s note

- Assist with ideas or/and language;

- Give both content and language feedback on their work afterwards;

Grammar

Ÿ Set Ex. I, have Ss read the sentences and discuss the definition of present simple tense and present continuous tense;

Ÿ Set Ex. II, have Ss complete the table;

Ÿ Set Ex.III, have Ss to discuss the forms of the words in fill in the blanks;

Ÿ Set Ex. IV, have Ss write a few sentences to describe the picture;

Ÿ Set Ex. V and discuss it in pairs;

Ÿ Set Ex. VI and describe the pictures in pairs;

Teacher’s note

- T guide Ss to create more sentences with the grammar point; 

- Monitor and assist with ideas or/and language;

- Give both content and language feedback on their work afterwards;

Writing Skills – Recognizing Parts of a Paragraph and Making an Outline 

Ÿ Set Ex. I and guide Ss to notice the important of the main idea based on the two short paragraphs;

Ÿ Set Ex. IV & V and introduce three main parts in a paragraph;

Ÿ Set Ex. VI and make sure Ss understand the meaning of making an outline, and able to write an outline and then check answers in pairs;

Teacher’s note

- Give Ss demo before asking them to practice in Ex. IV;

- Make sure Ss are able to write key words in outline;  

Writing Skills – Writing a Topic Sentence

Ÿ Set Ex.I and guide Ss to learn about topic sentence and then check their understanding;

Ÿ Set Ex. II and III then Ss checked in pairs before T checks. T clarifies after checking.

Ÿ Set Ex. IV;

Teacher’s note

- Ss brainstorm and write individually, then Ss check in pairs, T checks in the open class;

- Give Ss more ideas on the topic for later tasks;

- T can board some points if necessary as a reference for later tasks;

TOEFL Tip 

- Clarify the importance of using an outline and topic sentence before Ss write;

Time to Write 

- Set Ex. I, II & III and guide Ss to write;

- Ss exchange their paragraph and work in pairs, provide feedback in Ex. IV & V;

- Set Ex. VI and ask Ss to rewrite their paragraph with their partner’s suggestions;

- Ss share their paragraph with their classmate;

Teacher’s note:

- T could provide a chart for Ss when they are sharing their paragraph;

- Ss could use it to learn from each other, they can write down each other’s ideas and opinions; 

TOEFL Bridge

Ÿ Set Ex. I & II and guide Ss to complete topic sentence and outline. Make sure they make an outline before writing;

Ÿ Set Ex. III, Ss write individually;

Teacher’s Note: 

- Give Ss time to prepare beforehand;

- Monitor and assist with ideas/language;

- Remind Ss of using the vocabulary from the vocabulary list; 

- Give both content and language feedback on their work afterwards;

Unit 2 

Time: 120 minutes

Source: AT Bridging Writing Coursebook

Main Focus: Writing  

Lesson Aim:

- To better enable students to understand and use the past simple tense and “used to” to write about relationships between college majors and future job possibilities;

- To better enable students to write a paragraph about majors and studying in college using cohesive devices;

Teaching Points (lesson procedure)

Warm-up

Ÿ Use the four pictures to establish the context of major choosing and have Ss discuss the questions;

Vocabulary

Ÿ Have Ss guess the meanings and complete the matching task. Remember to drill the pronunciation;

Before You Write

Ÿ Set Ex. I & II (1). Set up a gist reading activity for this stage;

Grammar

Ÿ Noticing task: Use Ex. II (2) to introduce the marker sentence;

Ÿ Language Clarification 1: in terms of meaning, use the marker sentence to clarify;

Ÿ Set Ex.I & II, as for pronunciation, use the table on PPT to clarify the pronunciation of regular verbs, and a “verb tennis” game to practice;

Language clarification 2: in terms of meaning, use the marker sentence to clarify; don’t forget to clarify the pronunciation;

Ÿ Controlled practice: set Ex. III;

Ÿ Set Ex.IV. Don’t forget to ask Ss to use past simple tense and “used to”;

Ÿ Give feedback on content and language afterwards;

Ÿ Set Ex.V and VI as a flexible stage;

Writing Skills- Cohesion

Ÿ Set Ex. I to set up a gist reading activity for this stage;

Ÿ Set Ex.II to introduce cohesive devices;

Ÿ Set Ex.III to clarify the function of the cohesive devices;

Ÿ Set Ex. IV to practice. Add variety to activities, e.g. put answers on the walls around the classroom;

Time to Write 

Ÿ Set Ex.I II & III and set the context, the purpose for the writing task. Give Ss time to make outlines about what they are going to write in the writing task;

Teacher’s note:

- Monitor and assist with ideas or/and language. Make sure Ss are writing notes and not full sentences; 

Ÿ Set Ex.IV;

Ÿ Set Ex.V, Have Ss check the answer by themselves and in pairs;

Ÿ Set Ex.VI & VII, Have Ss rewrite the passage and share in groups;

Teacher’s note: 

- Give both content and language feedback on their work;

TOEFL Bridge

Ÿ Set Ex.I and II. Set the context and the purpose for the writing task. Give Ss time to make outlines about what they are going to write in the writing task;

Teacher’s note:

- Monitor and assist with ideas or/and language. Make sure Ss are writing notes and not full sentences;

Ÿ Set Ex.III Have Ss check the answer by themselves. Organize a gallery walk ac;

Teacher’s note:

- Give some feedback afterwards;

Unit 3 

Time: 120 minutes

Source: AT Bridging Writing Coursebook Unit 3

Main focus: Integrated Writing: Problems & Solutions

Lesson aim: 

- To better enable students to know how to introduce problems mentioned in the reading material.

- To better enable students to know how to give solutions to the problems mentioned in the reading.

- To better enable students to change the form of an adjective (long or short) into comparative or superlative.

Teaching Points (lesson procedure)

Warm-up

• Have Ss look at pictures and discussion the questions.

Teacher’s Note:

- Give both content and language feedback on their work afterwards.  

Vocabulary

• Have Ss guess the meanings of words and fill in the blank with the words.

• Clarify MPFA of the words in this stage.

Teacher’s Note: 

- Tell Ss they are going to read an article, the words they learn in this stage will be shown in the article.

- Drill the pronunciation chorally and individually

- Give both content and language feedback on their work afterwards. 

Before You Write

• Set Ex.I, and have Ss read and answer the question. (Read for gist and understand the main idea).

• Set Ex.II, and have Ss read again and complete the table.

Teacher’s Note: 

- Give both content and language feedback on their work afterwards. 

Grammar

• Set Ex.I and have Ss to complete the table.

• Set Ex.II and have Ss to discuss the forms of the words in fill in the table.

• Have Ss to learn Comparatives and Superlatives.

• Set Ex.III and have Ss to complete the sentences using the correct form of Comparatives or Superlatives.

• Set Ex. IV and have Ss finish error-correction task.

• Set up a semi-controlled practice: write a few sentences using Comparative and Superlatives.

Teacher’s Note: 

- Monitor and assist with ideas or/and language (vocabulary and sentence structures). Make sure Ss are writing full sentences but not key words. 

- Give both content and language feedback on their work afterwards. 

Writing Skills

• Set Ex. I &II and have Ss read for gist and understand the main idea.

• Set a gist listening task at this stage to find the relationship between the lecture and the reading passage.

• Set a detail listening task to have Ss find the solutions in the listening.

• Set a guided-discovery task and have Ss to find out the expressions used in introducing problems and solutions.

Introducing Problems & Solutions

• T introduces expressions used in introducing problems and solutions.

• Have Ss to write complete sentences with words and phrases that can be used in introducing problems and solutions.

Teacher’s Note: 

- Give Ss demo before asking them to practice.

- Correct Ss while monitoring if necessary.

- Board all the added expressions and show them to the whole class.

- Monitor and assist with ideas or/and language (vocabulary and sentence structures). Make sure Ss are writing full sentences but not key words. 

- Give both content and language feedback on their work afterwards. 

Time To Write

• Set Ex. I, have Ss read the article and answer the question (read for gist and understand the main idea).

• Set Ex.II, have Ss read the article and fill in the outline (read for detail).

• Set a semi-controlled task and have Ss write a complete paragraph to introduce problems and solutions.

• Have Ss to check their work according to items.

Teacher’s Note:

- Monitor and assist with ideas or/and language.

- Give both content and language feedback on their work afterwards.

- Monitor and assist with ideas or/and language (vocabulary and sentence structures). Make sure Ss are writing full sentences but not key words. 

- Give both content and language feedback on their work afterwards. 

TOEFL Bridge

• Set Ex. I & II and have Ss read for gist and understand the main idea.

• Set a gist listening task at this stage to find the relationship between the lecture and the reading passage.

• Set a detail listening task to have Ss find the solutions in the listening.

• Set a guided-discovery task and have Ss to find out the expressions used in introducing problems and solutions.

Teacher’s Note:

- Give Ss time to prepare beforehand

- Monitor and assist with ideas or/and language

- Remind students of using the ideas from the lecture and the expressions used in introducing problems and solutions.

- Monitor and assist with ideas or/and language (vocabulary and sentence structures). Make sure Ss are writing full sentences but not key words. 

- Give both content and language feedback on their work afterwards. 

Unit 4 

Time: 120 minutes

Source: AT Bridging Writing Coursebook

Main focus: Writing

Lesson aim: 

- To better enable Students to learn and talk about what can influence personality development;

- To better enable Students to learn how to express possibility;

- To better enable Students to know how to write a persuasive paragraph using concession and rebuttals;

Teaching Points (lesson procedure)

Warm-Up

Ÿ Have Ss read the newspaper notice, and discuss the questions in pairs;

Teacher’s note

- Monitor and assist with ideas/language;

Vocabulary 

Ÿ Have Ss guess the meanings of the words and complete the matching game;

Teacher’s note 

- Tell Ss they are going to read an article, the words they learn in this stage will be shown in the article;

- Drill the pronunciation chorally and individually;

- Give both content and language feedback on their work afterwards;

Before You Write

Ÿ Set Ex. I, have Ss read the article and answer the question;

Teacher’s note 

- Remind Ss to read for gist and understand the main idea;

- Give both content and language feedback on their work afterwards; 

Grammar

Ÿ Have Ss look at the chart, and discuss the question in pairs;

Ÿ Set Ex. I and then check the answer as a whole class;

Ÿ Set Ex. II and then Ss check in pairs; teacher gives answers afterwards;

Ÿ Set Ex. III and ask Ss to write a few sentences;

Ÿ Set Ex. IV and ask Ss share answers with a partner, teacher correct Ss while monitoring if necessary;

Teacher’s note

- Give Ss demo before asking to practice;

- Give both content and language feedback on their work afterwards;

- Monitor and assist with ideas or/and language (vocabulary and sentence structures);

- Correct Ss while monitoring if necessary;

- Board all the added expressions and show Ss to the whole class; 

Writing Skills 

Ÿ Have Ss read the article and answer the questions. Teacher check the answer as a whole class;

Ÿ Set Ex. I and ask Ss check the answers in pairs, teacher gives answers afterwards;

Ÿ Set Ex. II and Ss discuss in pairs;

Ÿ Set Ex. III and ask Ss to come up with concession & rebuttal statements;

Teacher’s note

- Give Ss demo before asking to practice; 

- Give both content and language feedback on their work afterwards;

- Monitor and assist with ideas or/and language;

TOEFL Tip

Ÿ Clarify the usage of Concessions and rebuttals in TOEFL Independent Writing;

Time to Write 

• Set Ex. I, have Ss read the two comments and answer the question (read for gist and understand the main idea);

• Set Ex II, ask Ss to use the table from Ex, I to write a complete paragraph;

• Set Ex. III, Ss exchange their paragraphs and use the checklist to check in pairs.

• Set Ex IV, Ss rewrite their paragraphs;

• Set Ex. V. Ss share their comment with the class;

Teacher’s note 

- Give both content and language feedback on their work afterwards;

- Monitor and assist with ideas or/and language, make sure Ss are writing full sentences;

- Give Ss demo before asking to write;

- Correct Ss while monitoring if necessary;

TOEFL Bridge

Ÿ Set Ex.I, have Ss discuss in small groups. Make sure they are writing full sentences;

Ÿ Set Ex. II, ask Ss to present with the class, and make sure they take notes of other classmates’ opinions;

Ÿ Set Ex. III, ask Ss to write a few concession and rebuttal sentences;

Ÿ Set Ex. IV, ask Ss to write a complete paragraph to support their argument;

Teacher’s note

- Give Ss time to prepare beforehand;

- Monitor and assist with ideas or/and language;

- Remind students of using their notes; and using the vocabulary from the vocabulary list;

- Monitor and assist with ideas or/and language; 

- Give both content and language feedback on their work afterwards. 

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