AT Bridging 教师培训手册4

AT Bridging 教师培训手册4
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2021年04月04日22:18:06 0 442

Appendix

Controlled and freer speaking and writing practice tasks

In language lessons (text-based and test teach test lessons) it’s important to give students language practice. The following activities are examples of how to make controlled writing or speaking tasks communicative, personalized and/ or kinaesthetic. The suitability of the following activities depends on the time you have for the task in the lesson, the difficulty of the language point and your learners’ learner styles and needs.

Gap-fill

This is a typical paper-based activity (often) where students complete a task with the correct target language. Other examples are circling the correct word, matching sentence halves, choosing a word from a choice of several etc.

Question mingle

Adapt the exercise by giving each student a question from it. Once the students have correctly worked out the answer, they then mingle and ask the other students their questions. Here the students are encouraged to prompt their peers if they answer the question correctly.

Question carousel

Adapt the typical gap-fill exercise by putting the questions from the exercise around the room. Encourage students to walk around with a partner and discuss the answers. Remember in feedback to give student a copy of the exercise.

Sentence mimes

Give students sentences containing the target language and in groups one student acts out a sentence for the others to guess. It’s particularly good if you are looking at continuous-simple tenses.

Find someone who…?

A common activity in which students have several sentences with the target language on and they have to find someone who one of the sentences is true for by going around and asking everyone the question. When students have found somebody encourage the students to ask follow-up questions.

Partner prediction

A similar task to Find someone who…? This time the students are given several sentences which include the target language. The students have to predict who these sentences are true for. Once they have done that they have to go around and check their predictions. Here encourage students to ask follow-up questions.

True and false sentences

Students write several sentences with the target language. However, some sentences are true and some are false. The in groups the students take it in turns to read their sentences aloud and the other students in the group have to ask questions to decide whether the sentence is true or false.

Sentence stems

Students write answers to questions that contain the target language on a separate piece of paper. Afterwards in pairs, the students ask each other why they wrote an answer for the other student to explain.

Productive skills/Extension Activities

A small sample of speaking and writing fluency tasks.

Letter Writing: Having read or listened to a text, get students to write a letter from the viewpoint of someone in the text.

Role-plays: Students take on a role of a person and act out a scene or an interview in character.

Picture Stories: Having read or listened to a text, get the students to make stories form pictures relating to the topic/text.

Active Column: Having read or listened to a text, get students to write an ‘agony aunt’ advice column to the different people in the text.

Front Covers: Having read or listened to a text, tell students that the story/article is going to be made into a book and they have to design the front cover to the book.

Personalization: Get students to discuss what they would do if they were in the various situations in the text that they have just read or listened to.

Design Task: Students make their own example of the text-type, e.g. advertisement, lonely heart ads, etc.

Questionnaires: Students answer questions on a topic in pairs or groups or even come up with questions for their own questionnaire, such as to find out who the most romantic person in the group is,people’s eating habits etc. 

Discussions: Students answer questions designed to get students to think about their values and priorities, such as Do you believe in ghosts? Do you agree that life is better now than 50 years ago? Etc. 

Problem-solving tasks: Students have to work together to solve a logic puzzle or a mystery of some sort and to come up with a solution in groups.

Debates:

Ÿ Formal Debate: Set up a debate between students with different views. Or having read or listened to a text, set up a debate between the different people/view points in the story.

Ÿ Pyramid Debate: Where students make a decision on something and then are regrouped several times in order to get everyone to agree on same thing.

Ÿ Balloon Debate: Where students have to argue for the rejection or the selection of ideas/things from a list.  

The Instruction Cycle

Here is a guide to how to set up tasks effectively.

1) Get the students’ attention

Stand or sit at the front of the class in the middle where everyone can see you. Avoid cutting off part of the class and avoid walking up to the students. To make this easier for you consider sitting on a chair.

2) Pair/group and move students

Regrouping students is a good way of ‘waking up’ students if they have been sitting for an extended period of time. Generally, try to avoid moving students once you have given instructions, especially if you are moving them significantly.

3) Instruct activity

Give clear instruction by using imperatives and scripting what you are going to say beforehand, If you have handouts, chest them so students can see what you are referring to. Avoid using complicated language in your instructions and avoid giving vague instructions.

4) Ensure students have understood

Before moving on you need to ensure students have understood your instructions. You can do this by:

- Doing and example with the class first.

- Demonstrating the task with a strong student to the whole class.

- Using ICQS, which are closed questions that are easy to answer.

5) Set time limit (where necessary)

Set an appropriate time limit for tasks so students know how long they have. This is particularly important for reading tasks and extended writing/speaking tasks. Also, do give time checks before stopping tasks.

6) Hand out worksheet/ Reveal page number

Give out handouts last as if you give them out first the students will naturally read it and not listen to your instructions. Also, if you want students to work in pairs then consider giving one handout between two.

7) Sweep around the class

Once the students have been told to start, sweep around the class to make sure everyone is on task. If they are then you can go to your lesson plan or prepare for the next stage. If some students aren’t on task, stop the activity and reinstruct as a whole class. Consider sweeping around on a chair to avoid looming over students.

Staging for Fluency Speaking Tasks

Preparation Stage

Lead In

If time, set some discussion questions for the students to ‘chat’ about the subject in order to get students thinking about the topic. Visual with discussion questions are also helpful.

Context

Set and check the context clearly. This can be helped by bringing in realia, setting the classroom up differently, giving students name tags etc. It’s important that everyone understands the situation.

Preparation

Assign roles to students and check they understand the roles that they have been given. ‘If needed, give out role-cards. Give students the necessary time to prepare for the role play. While they are preparing monitor and assist and prompt with language needed and ideas etc.

Performance Stage

Useful Language

At the start; bring to students’ attention any useful language that the students could use in order do the task more easily. Useful language to keep conversations going such as Oh, really? Tell me more etc. can make the role-play go more naturally.

Task performance

Instruct students on the role-play being clear on the task that the students have to achieve. If possible do so by modelling the task. The teacher will also need to check any other aspects of the role-play that is not covered by the demonstration.

Whilst the students are on task the teacher: monitors to ensure all students are on task, intervenes if communication breaks down, notes down errors or any examples of successful language use for delayed feedback.

The teacher may also get the students to swap roles etc. or s/he may decide to so this after s/he has done some language feedback.

Feedback

The teacher gets feedback on the content of the role-play. Remember we get students to use language for a communicative purpose not just to simply practice a specific language point.

Delayed language feedback

Here the teacher primarily focuses on successes/examples of good language use and errors. This can be done by boarding the language just before you stop the freer speaking task or written on an OHT. Give students time to look at the language and to decide if the boarded language is a success or whether it contains an error and then elicit the correction.

Lead out

Round off the task by getting students to discuss questions that get the students reflecting on the task, such as If this had been in real life, would you have acted the same?, What was most surprising about your partner’s choice?, Do you agree with the outcome?, How did your opinion change? Etc. 

Task Management

The following is general guidance on how to instruct, monitor and get feedback on a variety of common tasks often used in an EFL classroom. Use this in conjunction with your TP (teaching practice) points to help you execute the tasks effectively.

Simple pair-work discussion tasks

Instructions to set up the task

If you can, have the question(s) pre-boarded. This can be done before the lesson starts or while Ss are on task during a previous activity. Get the Ss attention, put Ss in pairs or groups and instruct Ss to discuss the question(s). Before Ss discuss, model a typical answer, which shows Ss the language to use and ideas to talk about.

How to monitor and what to monitor for

Here listen to the Ss to ensure they understand and be available if Ss have any questions. Do this unobtrusively, avoid approaching and interrupting Ss who are clearly on task. Also avoid ‘looming’ over Ss and consider monitoring on a chair. Listen out for Ss with interesting ideas/opinions as you can call on them in feedback.

How to get feedback

When the time is up or you see Ss starting to finish, signal to bring everyone’s attention to you. Avoid proceeding until you have everyone’s attention. To get feedback nominate Ss who you know has something to say and ideally something interesting to say. Remember to keep central. Avoid cutting off the class by approaching the Ss who you are getting feedback from.   Do look to respond personally to what Ss tell you and avoid just echoing what the Ss say.   It’s unnecessary to get feedback from every Ss or pair, normally getting feedback from just one or two pairs will suffice.

Taboo /Hot-seat type vocabulary tasks

Instructions to set up the task

Divide the class into teams. Place a chair for each team in the front of the class, facing away from the board. Each team nominates a member to sit on the hot seat. Write a vocabulary item to be revised from a previous lesson or activity onto the board. Instruct team mates to try to explain the word on the board to their team member on the hot seat without using the actual word. The team who guesses the word first gets a point. Rules can vary depending on the level of learners, e.g. can explain the target word using different word form of the same word, can give away the first letter, number of syllables of the word; need to be able to spell and/or pronounce the word correctly to get a point; Ss on the hot seat can change after each round or only after they stored a point for their team. Briefly concept check the rules and demonstrate the activity. The activity can be done in pairs or small groups as well with the words written on small cards facing down. Members of each team take turns to pick a card and explain the word on the card to their team member/partner.

How to monitor and what to monitor for

Monitor closely, evenly and unobtrusively to ensure that the rules of the activity are followed, and offer assistance if necessary. Note down any examples to be addressed in feedback.

How to get feedback

When time is up, get all Ss attention. Announce the winning team, offer praise for some of the good answers and address issues with meaning, pronunciation or spelling you noted during monitoring.

Board races

Instructions to set up the task

There are many different types of board races and you will find a wealth of examples in the resource room. Here are three examples which can be adapted to suit a range of levels and language points.

Board Ladders: draw two ladders on the board, each with the same number of rungs. Tell Ss they will be in two teams and their aim is to be the first team to reach the top of the ladder    by writing in relay a word between each pair of rungs. You will give them a topic, for example, animals, or food and drink, and the first word at the foot of their ladder. The challenge is that each successive word has to begin with the last letter of the word below it. Do an example on the board, eg: rice - egg - ginger-rhubarb. Make sure Ss have working board markers and ask questions to check they understand, then get them started with a different word for each team so they are less likely to copy each other. The activity finishes when the top of the ladder is reached.

True/False Board Slap: draw two boxes per team on the board, one marked T, the other F.

Ss will stand in two lines facing the board. You will call out a statement on a recently   covered topic, the players at the front of the line slap the T box if they think the statement is true, and the F box if they don’t. They then go to the back of the line. Tell teams to keep a tally of their scores on the board. This activity should not be allowed to drag, and each team member should have at least two goes at slapping T or F.

Spelling Race: have the class in two teams and divide the board into two. The two teams stand facing the board with the players at the front equipped with board markers. You call out a word from a recently covered lexical set, the team whose player is the first to correctly spell the lexis gets a point. The players who wrote go to the back and the next players become the next writers. This is best conducted briskly, and each S should get at least two goes at writing.

How to monitor and what to monitor for

Board ladders: this is largely S-centred, so your main job is to check the Ss are writing the right type of words between the rungs, and advising them to change them if they aren’t.

- True/False Board Slap: you are directing this and telling the teams who has the point. Praise appropriately.

- Spelling Race: again, you are directing this and letting teams know when they have the correct  spellings.

How to get feedback

Board Ladders: have the teams look at each others' work and score it, then score it whole class. Give appropriate praise for well spelled awkward words, and appropriate but unusual words.

- True/False Board Slap: praise the winning team and ask questions to clear up any misunderstandings about the statements.

- Spelling Race: praise the winning team and wrap up with a short focus on any spelling ‘rules’ or oddities which came up, for example ‘I before e except after c’, or silent letters.

Rip n’ Run

(good to do as a kinaesthetic controlled practice task)

Instructions to set up the task

Set up the task with the set of questions positioned around the room (don't put the set of questions too close to the Ss otherwise the ‘run' element is lost). Put Ss into pairs or small groups of 3/4 if you have a big class. Tell Ss that when you say ‘Go’ the first S is to run to the set of questions and rip off the first one and run back to their group. The S reads the question aloud to their group to answer, which could be related to grammar or vocabulary, and write the answer on the piece of paper that they have just ripped off. Then they must run to you (positioned centrally in the class) and show it to you, if it’s wrong they have to go back to their group and try again. When they get the answer right, another S from the group runs to the set of questions and rips off the next question and runs back to the group to do the same. The activity continues until one group has correctly answered all the questions. Instruct Ss what to do and actually model the task twice so Ss are crystal clear about what to do.

How to monitor and what to monitor for

once you have ensured all the Ss have understood remain central so Ss can easily run to you and show you their answers. Here, make a note of the questions that the Ss have struggled with so you can focus on the problem areas during feedback.

How to get feedback

Reward the winners with a round of applause. Then give the Ss the task/list of questions. Then either put the answers to the questions up on the visualiser or elicit them from the Ss. Here focus on the questions that you found the Ss had problems with or that you can predict are going to be problematic for them. Don’t just explain the answer, elicit from the Ss.

Prediction tasks for listenings /readings

(good to do in order to orientate Ss to the text and to create engagement in it)

Instructions to set up the task

Groups the Ss and bring their attention to the either the title of the text, visuals from the

text or key phrases from the text and tell Ss to guess what the text is about. You could have the visuals/title/phrases boarded or you could have them on a handout for Ss. If you do have them on a handout, don’t give it to Ss until you have finished the instruction cycle. To

make sure Ss understand and to show Ss how to do the task, elicit a few guesses from the Ss. Here you could also have a few useful phrases pre-boarded for the Ss to use, such as I'm not sure, but I think it is about..., For me, it looks like the text could be about...because... etc.

How to monitor and what to monitor for

Here listen to the Ss to ensure they understand and be available if Ss have any questions. Do this unobtrusively, avoid approaching and interrupting Ss who are clearly on task. Also avoid ‘looming’ over Ss and consider monitoring on a chair. Listen out for Ss with interesting ideas/opinions as you can call on them in feedback.

How to get feedback

When the time is up or you see Ss starting to finish, signal to bring everyone’s attention to you. Avoid proceeding until you have everyone’s attention. To get feedback nominate Ss who you know has something to say and ideally something interesting to say. Remember to keep central. Avoid cutting off the class by approaching the Ss who you are getting feedback from. Do look to respond personally to what Ss tell you and avoid just echoing what the Ss say. Also do remember to not confirm or deny any answers, especially if you are going to lead into a reading/listening task where Ss have to listen to check their predictions.

Gist listening tasks

Instructions to set up the task

Have the task on the visualiser, pre-boarded or let Ss look in the course book. Get Ss’ attention.   Check they understand they are to complete the task during the playing time of the audio. Your lead in should give them some idea of who will be speaking (and to whom), their gender, location, relationship, and, possibly, purpose. Reassure Ss they will not have to understand every word in order to complete the task.

How to monitor and what to monitor for

During the playing of the audio, distance monitor simply to ensure Ss are focused on the task.  As soon as the audio finishes, put Ss into pairs to compare their answers. Now monitor closely to assess degrees of comprehension and consensus - this should be done quickly. Let Ss with the right answer know they are correct.

How to get feedback

Stand or sit centrally and static and get all Ss’ attention. Nominate one or two of those Ss you know have the correct answer to give it. Provide a visual reference to the correct answer on the board or on the visualizer. If necessary, elicit a brief explanation of why the answer is correct, but don’t let this interrupt the dynamic of the task cycle.

Intensive listening tasks

Instructions to set up the task

Have the task on a handout and distribute it face down. Chest your copy of the handout or project in on the visualizer and tell Ss how they are to answer- ticking boxes/ circling T or F/circling correct options, and so on. Point to the relevant areas of the handout as you do this. Ask questions to establish Ss now what they are to do and that they will complete the task while the audio is playing. Have Ss turn the handout face up and allow a short time for detailed task absorption before playing the audio.

How to monitor and what to monitor for

As before, monitor distantly while the audio is playing. Once the audio is over, set up pair comparison. Monitor this closely and actively- have your copy of the handout with you and write Ss names or initials next to those questions they have answered correctly. Let these Ss know these answers are correct. Also, note any questions that no S has answered correctly.

How to get feedback

Conduct this at the board or on the visualizer so you can provide a visual reference. Nominate Ss you noted had correct answers, and give reasonable praise. Don't use redundant TTT and read each question aloud to prompt the answer, a simple cue like “Number two, Som?” is all you need. For any questions no S answered, give the answer yourself and briefly elicit or give its justification. During feedback, try to call on different Ss and if shy Ss have the correct answer, nominate them before more vocal Ss to build their confidence. Above all, don’t call on nominees who have incorrect answers or no answer at all. As you get to know the Ss' abilities you can experiment with different feedback techniques such as having Ss write the answers on the board or projector once you know they have correct answers.

Gist reading tasks

Instructions to set up the task

Have the task on the visualiser, pre-boarded or let Ss look in the course book. Get Ss’ attention. Check they understand they are to complete the task while reading. Reassure Ss they will not have to understand every word in order to complete the task. Set the time limit and check Ss understand how long they have to read and complete the task.

How to monitor and what to monitor for

While Ss are reading, distance monitor to check that Ss are on task. As soon as the time limit is up, put Ss into pairs to compare their answers. Now monitor closely and assess degrees of comprehension and consensus-do this quickly. Let Ss with the right answer know they are correct.

How to get feedback

Stand or sit centrally and static and get all Ss' attention. Nominate one or two of those Ss

You know have the correct answer to give it. Provide a visual reference to the correct answer on the board or on the visualiser. If desirable, elicit a brief explanation of why it's correct, but don’t let this slow down the task cycle.

Intensive readings tasks

Instructions to set up the task

Get Ss to turn the text face down so you can hold their attention. Have the task on a handout and distribute it face down. Chest your copy of the handout or project it on the visualiser and tell Ss how they are to answer - ticking boxes/circling T or F/circling correct options, and so on. Point to the relevant areas of the handout as you do this. Ask questions to establish Ss know what they are to do and that they will complete the task while they are reading the text again. Set a time limit and check ss know what it is. Have Ss turn the handout face up and allow a short time for detailed task absorption before having them refer to the text.

How to monitor and what to monitor for

As before, monitor distantly while the Ss are reading. Once the time limit has passed, set up pair comparison. Monitor this closely and actively - have your copy of the handout with you and write Ss' names or initials next to those questions they have answered correctly. Let these Ss know these answers are correct. Also note any questions that no S has answered correctly.

How to get feedback

Conduct this at the board or on the visualiser so you can provide a visual reference. Nominate Ss you noted had correct answers and give reasonable praise. Don't use redundant TTT by reading each question aloud to prompt the answer, a simple cue like “Number three, Sai?” is all you need. For any questions no S answered, give the answer yourself and briefly elicit or give its justification. During feedback, try to call on different Ss, and if shy Ss have the correct answer, nominate them before more vocal Ss to build their confidence. Above all, don’t call on nominees who have incorrect answers or no answer at all. As you get to know the S’s abilities you can experiment with different feedback techniques such as having Ss write the answers on the board or projector once you know they have correct answers.

Jigsaw Readings

(a good way to integrate productive and receptive skills)

Jigsaw Reading (1st Reading)

(to do a jigsaw reading you will need two texts ideally in a similar context). Group Ss in two groups, all As together and all Bs together and ensure all the As have the same text and all the Bs have the same text. Then set a gist task which often will be the same for each task, and as always get Ss to compare answers before whole class feedback. I lere ensure you monitor to help Ss with any problems as it's best not to get whole class feedback on the two texts.

Jigsaw Reading(2nd Reading)

Then set intensive reading questions. Here the questions are likely to be different for each text, so again whole class feedback isn’t possible. So again the teacher needs to monitor and prompt ss on wrong answers and encourage peer-teaching during pair-checks. Consider giving Ss the answers on a handout

Preparation

Tell Ss that their texts are different and they are going to share their texts with a student from the other group. However, before they do this they need to re-read their text and note down 8-10 key words to help them remember the text. Give ss a short time limit to do this.

Jigsaw Speaking

Now re-group the Ss (AB/AB) so that an A is sitting with B. Once the ss are in place tell ss to tell their partner what the article is about. However, the Ss should paraphrase the text not just read it aloud. Also have discussion questions boarded for Ss to discuss in pairs afterwards, which allow for the Ss to comment on both texts. For example, if the two texts were about talented people then you might ask Which person do you think is the most talented? Who has been the most successful? Who has worked the hardest to achieve their success? Etc. While Ss are speaking, listen out for interesting ideas as well as any pertinent language errors or successes.

Feedback

(If you have any language errors or successes to address, board them just before you stop the speaking task.) Once Ss have both shared their stories and discussed the questions, nominate one or two ss to report on what their partner told them. If there are language errors to address and successes to highlight, put Ss into pairs and draw their attention to the boarded language feedback and get Ss to work out if it's an error or a success. If it's an error, get Ss to correct the error.

Guided discovery tasks

Instructions to set up the task

Have the task on a handout and distribute It face down. Chest your copy of the handout and tell Ss they will be working individually first. Point to the relevant areas of the handout to show what they are to do i.e. fill in the gaps, circle the correct answer and so on set time limit. Ask checking questions or demonstrate the first task to ensure ss know what they are to do

How to monitor and what to monitor for

Monitor closely and evenly, offer assistance or clarification as needed but do not simply give away correct answers. After individual work, set up pair comparison. Monitor actively by writing Ss names next to the questions they have answered correctly, note any questions most ss struggle with.

How to get feed back

Have a visual reference of the handout using on the visualiser during feedback. Nominate only Ss you noted had the correct answers, and give praise. If it was a difficult/problematic question also ask S to justify the answer. Keep it brief by referring to questions like "Number three?" instead of reading out the question itself.

Gap-fill (or similar) tasks

Instructions to set up the task

Get the Ss’ attention, tell them to close their books and put their pens down so they won't be distracted. Stand or sit centrally and static and chest the material or display it on the OHP or visualizer. Give simple clear instructions indicating the areas of the material that are to be referred to or completed. A tip for task design, feedback can be more streamlined if each gap is given a number. Make sure you tell Ss everything they need to know for example that there is a word bank to choose from, or that some gaps can be filled with more than one answer. Decide if Ss are to initially work solo, or in pairs, and tell them this. Use simple ICQs to check Ss understand what they are to do, and know the time limit. You may need to complete the first gap open class as an example. Once you are confident the task is understood by all, tell Ss to turn to the material and begin the task.

How to monitor and what to monitor for

If Ss are working solo, it can be discouragingly intrusive to monitor closely, so just distance monitor checking they aren't going off task. Pairs can be more easily monitored as they generally have the material more readily visible between them. Once the task has been fairly completed, set up peer comparison. The aim if these tasks is accuracy, so you need to monitor exclusively for correct answers. Have a copy of the material yourself and note which Ss have correct answers-this will help you facilitate more focused feedback. Note also common areas of confusion as these will give you an opportunity for remedial work in the feedback stage.

How to get feedback

Conduct this at the board or on the visualiser so you can provide a visual reference. Nominate Ss you noted had correct answers, and appropriate encouragement. Don’t use redundant TTT by reading each gapped to prompt the answer, a simple cue

Reference Books

METHODOLOGY

LEARNING TEACHING   Jim Scrivener (Macmillan)

PRACTICE OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING Jeremy Harmer (Longman)

Both books are written for EFL teachers who are just starting their career, and are therefore of particular relevance to trainees. Both provides useful back-up to many of the course seminar topics.

TEACHERS’ GRAMMAR REFERENCE BOOKS

PRACTICAL ENGLISH USAGE, Michael Swan (OUP)

GRAMMAR FOR ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHERS Martin Parrott (C.U.P)

GRAMMAR PRACTICE BOOKS

ENGLISH GRAMMAR IN USE, Raymond Murphy (CUP)

(An American English version of this book, entitled "Grammar in Use", is also available)

HOW ENGLISH WORKS, Michael Swan and Catherine Walter (O.U.P)

PRONUNCIATION BOOK

SOUND FOUNDATIONS, Adrian Underhill, (Macmillan)

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